Marshall Thomas needs no introduction, his stellar research, writing–articles and books, and videos online record his investigations into human experimentation programs run by the US government and by the CIA (MKULTRA). His explorations trace how the Phoenix program run covertly by the CIA against Vietnam war protesters and activists seems to have morphed currently, from the ’80s onward, into an expanded New Phoenix program against anti-war, 9/11 truth-focused, and other activists and whistleblowers. (He calls this program Monarch.)
Although his focus is on the targeting of individuals in the US primarily, and his research highlights the possible involvement and collusion of Army Intelligence, INSCOM, the CIA, and the FBI, running enhanced COINTELPRO today on political activists with EMF weapons, the extent of his research and candor of his commentary continue to offer a significant resource in this area. Additionally, he suggests in his work–as others, including Dr. Nick Begich do, currently, from their own documented research–that there is most definitely an arms race going on in the world currently, in this area–of electromagnetic weapons–and it is this new turn in weaponry, causing a so-called Revolution in Military Affairs in armies worldwide, which is causing widespread covert testing of these deadly weapons on civilians.
Today, he suggests, there is a huge fight underway. It is the struggle to expose the crimes that are currently being committed against humanity by these covert experimentation and testing programs (hidden under labels of classification and national security) which essentially torture humans with pulse weapons and debilitating streams of radiation, and it is a fight that all of humanity must engage in, not just on behalf of the activists and others currently being attacked, but humanity itself.
“These are crimes against humanity and treason, crimes that carry the ultimate penalty. The outcome of this struggle will decide not just the fate of a few hundred activists, or a few thousand do-gooders, it will decide whether your lives are in the hands of desperate men armed with terrible weapons. Men who will stop at nothing to win. Men hiding behind the door of classification and national security.” (From a post dated Oct 12, 2011 on his blog.)
His long film, Monarch: The New Phoenix program covering histories of MKULTRA, Russian and American psychiatry experiments, behavior modification, hypnosis, neuroscience, and effects of electromagnetics on animals and humans, may be found on Top Documentary Films at this link.
Other links to his work are re-posted here from a post by user matrix cutter (many thanks!) at a Prison Planet forum (found on a search):
Read the books:
The New Phoenix Program (2hrs 15mins)
The film about war crimes using microwave weapons to neutralize and kill political activists and whistleblowers. The author has interviewed 200 targets who have been turned into human guinea pigs to perfect electromagnetic weapons and the science of behavior modification.
The New Phoenix Program II (1hr 20mins)
The second film about microwave weapons war crimes and crimes against humanity. The victims tell their story of being tortured mercilessly with state of the art anti-personnel weapons.
Monarch three (45mins)
Victims of electromagnetic harassment and organized stalking speak of their torture.
War Crimes Speech (6mins 52s)
Brief description of four main facts proving war crimes.
Seven Minute Speech
War crimes and information about how to reform.
All of this information can be downloaded for free. Then you can make a donation using the Paypal button on Marshall Thomas’ website .
Getting all these links together took a while, so please give generously (to Marshall Thomas, not to me).
This post below, which offers a detailed commentary on the nature of the targeting and assault with EMF weapons that thousands are experiencing today, is re-posted from Monarchnewphoenix.blogspot, a blog run by Marshall Thomas, and is dated Dec 12, 2011.
Monday, December 12, 2011
Four Facts and Logical Explanations:
Political activists and whistleblowers are being attacked with electromagnetic weapons (EMW) and used as human guinea pigs in terminal experiments designed to force a suicide, incarceration, or premature death from non-ionizing radiation. This program is a continuation of earlier illegal government programs.
During the Cold War the Department of Defense (DOD) used 500,000 US citizens as experimental subjects in nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons development programs. We refer to these all of these crimes against humanity as the human guinea pigs experiments.
During the Cold War the government made hit lists of political activists and waged an undeclared secret war on them. This illegal program was the FBI Counter Intelligence Program or COINTELPRO.
During the Cold War the CIA used Nazi scientists to learn how to control the human mind using drugs, torture, ECT, electromagnetic radiation, and hypnosis. This illegal program was Mind Kontrol ULTRA or MKULTRA.
Today Army intelligence (INSCOM) is accomplishing all three illegal government programs in a single program using the military strategy known as force multiplication. INSCOM is perfecting (EMW) electromagnetic weapons on unwilling people. Human guinea pig experiments.
INSCOM is also neutralizing potential enemies on a hit list, political activists and whistleblowers, by using them as the unwilling subjects of the human experimentation. Cointelpro
Finally, INSCOM is using extreme trauma, sleep deprivation, and other torture techniques delivered by EMW to the targets to further refine the science of behavior modification. MKULTRA
Force multiplication means enfolding all three of the previous illegal government operations, human guinea pig experiments, Cointelpro, and MKULTRA, together with the new electromagnetic weapons (EMW) development program, in short accomplishing all three aims at once.
Political activists that in the past were attacked in a traditional manner are now targeted with EMW. Targeted Individuals (TI’s) fit a common profile just like previous illegal programs. The new technology often leaves no obvious injuries so that driving TI’s to suicide using EMW is plausibly deniable. If the traumatized TI’s retaliate they are incarcerated, if they protest too vehemently they are forcibly institutionalized. The long term effect of non-ionizing radiation is often cancer, heart attack, or similar cause of death that is recorded as natural causes. Murder by heart attack, stroke, or cancer is plausibly deniable, and thus the perfect crime. Army intelligence (INSCOM) is committing crimes against humanity, the same criminal activity for which the WWII Allies executed Nazi scientists.
The case being made is based on Four Facts to avoid confusion, disinformation, and circular arguments that lead nowhere. MKULTRA took place at over 80 institutions and the current program (MONARCH) is equally complex. Four facts are all that’s necessary to convince a reasonable person this atrocity is really taking place and demands immediate action. The name MONARCH has been chosen by the author, the real name is unknown.
ONE: EMW like the active denial system (ADS) and milliwave radars are public weapons. The USSR used EMW to attack the US Embassy in Moscow in the 1950’s. In response the US began a secret crash program to develop microwave weapons.
TWO: Criminal history, a prior pattern of criminal behavior, half a million (500,000) US citizens used as guinea pigs in nuclear, biological, chemical (NBC) weapons programs. Cointelpro government hit lists of activists and MKULTRA behavior modification experiments using torture. All three illegal government programs escaped detection for decades and no perpetrators were ever punished.
THREE: Credible witnesses have testified they are targets of classified EMW and organized stalking. The author has interviewed 200 targets in person. Most TI’s are activists and whistleblowers, about 40 years old, with a high IQ, and other commonalities. The majority fit a common profile similar to victims of previous illegal government programs.
FOUR: Persons of interest, Army intelligence officers who have worked since 1980 to develop EMW for the Army, publicly admired MKULTRA, advocated using EMW on civilians in their homes, moved classified weapons from the DOD to the DOJ and to law enforcement. They promote borderline beliefs as part of a smoke screen cover up.
These are the basic facts reduced to the bare minimum. More evidence is free online in books, films, blogs, government documents, military science papers, EMW scientist’s papers, patents, newspaper and magazine articles, the testimony of experts and witnesses. Four Facts are all that is necessary to prove a preponderance of evidence, enough to convince a reasonable person that these crimes are taking place and must be stopped. If adds up to four, open the door. (open the secret archives)
When the USSR attacked the US embassy in Moscow with microwave weapons in the 1950’s the US began to develop microwave weapons in secret. Today there are public nonlethal microwave weapons like the active denial system (ADS) and milliwave radars, but where are the weapons that kill? The USSR developed microwave weapons that kill by stopping the heart and causing cancer. The US also developed lethal microwave weapons capabilities but kept them secret because if the American people saw human beings killed by heart attack or cancer then they might object to the weapons as immoral and dangerous.
The active denial system (ADS) shoots a tight beam of electromagnetic radiation (95Ghz) that heats your skin to 130 F and feels like you’re touching a red hot iron. It is a pain amplification device engineered not to kill so the public will accept the new weapons. Milliwave radars are see-thru-wall radars used by the military for house to house fighting. They see through building materials and the water in the human body lights up with great definition. The world is now a fish bowl and the American people no longer have privacy even inside their own homes.
If the US had weapons that could kill anyone anywhere without leaving any physical evidence and only a select few knew of their existence, wouldn’t they tempted to use them for their own selfish purposes. The power to kill anyone anywhere is an absolute power that corrupts absolutely.
If intelligence agencies have a history of criminal behavior targeting activists and the current targets are activists who testify they are attacked with classified anti-personnel weapons similar to the ADS, shouldn’t they be investigated?
During the Cold War the US Army used 500,000 US citizens as guinea pigs for NBC weapons. EMW are the latest and greatest toys coming out of government weapons labs. Do you think they just suddenly stopped at the end of the Cold War? If they could continue without getting caught, wouldn’t they be tempted to continue?
If a murderer has tortured and or killed half a million people and got away with it, and then you gave him an EMW that could kill anyone anywhere without the risk of getting caught, what would he do, just stop out of new found sense of morality?
The USSR attacked the US embassy in the 1950’s with EMW, and it was kept secret until the 1970’s. If the USSR could get away with using EMW against the US, even then the world’s greatest superpower, then what chance would a single individual have against this kind of state sponsored high tech terrorism? The USSR has had EMW for decades that can kill goats at a distance of half a mile. Were the Russians the only ones smart enough to develop EMW? Innocent people are being attacked everyday with EMW in their homes and work places. They are living a nightmare you can’t imagine. EMW attacks employ a decoy and deception strategy making it nearly impossible to tell who is attacking you, or how attacks are being accomplished. If these EMW were public you might believe them, but as it stands now they have no chance.
When KGB agent turned whistleblower Alexander Litvinenko was poisoned with polonium-210 there was a radiation trail that led from Moscow, to London, and back to Moscow. When a TI is murdered using non-ionizing radiation to induce heart attack, stroke, or cancer, there is no physical evidence of foul play, no traces of NBC agents, and no bullet fragments. A murder that is plausibly deniable is the perfect crime. The intelligence agencies have achieved perfect deniability for their crimes.
There are persons of interest in charge of nonlethal microwave weapons development for the Army since 1980 working at weapons labs like Los Alamos where the atomic bomb was invented in secret. These men have expressed admiration for MKULTRA, interest in using EMW to modify human behavior and “neuter people”. They’ve publicly advocated using EMW to attack civilians in their homes, and been instrumental in moving classified military weapons from the DOD to the DOJ. These persons of interest are experts with 45 years of experience in psychological operations (psyop)(Mind War), misdirection, and counter insurgency warfare. Remote Viewing is sold online by Army intelligence officers, in effect saying that for $3,000 we’ll teach you super powers of the mind so you can spy on the Russians in their underground bases or find their submarines hidden at the bottom of the ocean. Should we believe them or be skeptical and look more closely at what they are doing? None of these intelligence officers and government physicists actually believes in apocalyptic death cults or remote viewing. These superstitions are a smoke screen. Superstitions don’t go together with Army weapons development programs. One of these things does not belong with the other. They do go with the concept of the Big Lie used as a smoke screen. The Big Lie was first used for the WWII D-Day invasion. Army intelligence created a fake Army around General Patton to mislead the enemy with fake radio traffic, inflatable tanks, planes, and landing craft. The Nazi high command was so fooled that even weeks after the Normandy invasion they were still holding their Panzer tank divisions in reserve waiting for the real invasion at Calais. The Big Lie was used to cover up the real operation of 8,000 ships and hundreds of thousands of men. It is misdirection on a mass scale to screen a secret plan, a large military operation.
It is important to understand what we are dealing with. J Edgar Hoover had files on Congressmen, and Presidents that detailed their personal lives and made them afraid to fire him. The FBI targeted political activists in Cointelpro. Hoover personally wrote MLK a letter to force him to commit suicide. Hoover’s career stretched from 1920’s to the 1970’s when he died in office. This was unprecedented for one man to control one of the most powerful agencies in government for so long. This is the kind of power we’re faced with, men too powerful to defy, too powerful to cross, or Congressmen and even Presidents might be politically or even physically destroyed. Anyone who commands the power to assassinate people in manner that appears to be a natural cause of death is able to get away with murder. It is the perfect crime. This capability is exactly what we are faced with today, the ability to kill anyone with plausible deniability. If Hoover had access to EMW he would have used them on people like MLK. You would have read one day that MLK had died of heart attack, stroke, cancer, or even suicide. MLK’s movement would have stalled out and died out before it had gained sufficient momentum within society to succeed.
Investigative reporters have independently corroborated these charges. Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) has a secret weapon, a revolutionary breakthrough in electronic warfare capabilities that will transform how war is waged. They possess a secret weapon that can track and kill anyone in their area of operations, day or night, in any kind of weather. JSOC has a death squad with a hit list carrying out assassinations outside the chain of military command or civilian oversight. These are the same charge made by activists, that they are targeted with classified anti-personnel weapons similar to the ADS.
EMW are referred to as a Revolution in Military Affairs or RMA. This term is very specific terminology used by military scientists. Examples of an RMA are gunpowder and nuclear weapons. The invention of gunpowder meant all previous weapons were suddenly obsolete and a few hundred men armed with cannon and firearms could take over entire nations, turning the military, political, and social structure upside down. If Nazi’s had invented nuclear weapons in 1940 and had 100 atomic bombs, they could have taken over the entire world and put in place a fascist state world government. Today’s battle field weapons are shells and missiles that travel at top speeds of 3,000 miles per hour. EMW and lasers travel at the speed of light (186,000 miles per second) and have demonstrated the ability to destroy shells and missiles in flight.
To understand the current illegal program (MONARCH) it is necessary to understand Cointelpro and MKULTRA. Cointelpro targets were the civil rights, anti-war, environmental, and women’s movements. Infiltration and psychological operations probably began in the 1950’s. The theory of counter insurgency operations dictates that infiltration and “psyop” be used against dissident groups in “normal times,” before any mass movement can develop. This means an undeclared war must be waged on civil society, namely people trying to bring about progressive social change in a lawful and constitutionally protected manner. The favorite FBI tactic is the “snitch jacket,” where suspicion of being an informant is used against legitimate leaders. In practice an FBI informant would join MLK’s inner circle and use false evidence to make it appear that MLK was himself an FBI informant. The organization is torn by suspicion and broken apart from within. FBI agents put pressure on landlords to evict the activists, and pressure on employers to fire them. Cointelpro went silent in the late 1970’s, and then re-emerged in the early 1980’s. Infiltration of anti-war groups is a common part of the current “Global War on Terror”.
MKULTRA: The CIA scientist Dr. Sidney Gottlieb used Nazi scientists and their state of the art mind control techniques perfected in concentration camps of WWII. Nazi scientists experimented on children using drugs, torture, electroshock, and hypnosis. Mind control works best when trauma is administered by age three. Trauma causes the personality to split or dissociate in order to shield the mind from memories too painful to endure. It works like partitioning a computer hard drive. The Three Faces of Eve is a true story of a woman’s multiple personality disorder (MPD) accidently created by childhood abuse. Trauma causes the dissociation. MKULTRA works best when the trauma is repeated on the child at six. Later the child’s IQ and personality tests determine if the child may be trained in espionage. The subject can be hypnotized and used for operations, after which they have no memory of events and are only consciously aware of a sense of lost time. They are like a sleep walker who remembers nothing. The current illegal program using EMW to traumatize targets is a direct result of these earlier programs.
The DOD does not want a public backlash against weapons they are pouring billions of dollars into. EMW are the perfect tool for espionage operations (psyop) very versatile, cheaper than other weapons, and give you more bang for the buck. EMW will never willingly be made public or given up by INSCOM. The intelligence agencies still keep the formula for invisible ink secret after 100 years.
DOD physicists have developed EMW that couple with and interact with the human central nervous system without electrodes. Many scientific papers written in the 50’s, 60’s, and 70’s have been classified retroactively but many scientific papers still remain public. There are hundreds of public patents for EMW that both interact with and attack the central nervous system. Today the private sector is reinventing the wheel. Similar technology is being used for the disabled. Toyota makes a wheel chair that quadriplegic’s can control with mental commands.
Government elites are effectively above the law due to the National Security Act (NSA) of 1947, which allows claims of national security exceptions in courts of law to cover up criminal wrong doing. Judges accept the argument, “trust us or our enemies will learn our secrets”. Wearing the uniform of the US doesn’t mean men stop being human, and thus imperfect. The NSA was first invoked in court in 1953 when a B-29 crashed killing the civilians aboard. Their widows sued for negligence. The DOD invoked the NSA and the court records were sealed. Fifty years later the records were unsealed and there were no secrets to protect, only DOD negligence. This was first time the NSA was used in court and the pattern has been repeated to allow the DOD and others to avoid criminal penalties. It is the perfect get out of jail free card.
The motivation to assassinate loyal American opposition stems from perception of dissent against the Vietnam War as treason. This philosophy is stated very clearly in the MindWar paper written by Army intelligence officer Lt Colonel Michael Aquino. The claim of sabotage by domestic enemies as the reason for losing the Vietnam War was once a borderline view, but is now the premier narrative of the Neocons. This claim of betrayal is the exact same claim made by the German Army after their loss in WWI. German conservatives and German military leaders blamed Socialists, Communists, and Jews who “stabbed them in the back on home front”. INSCOM officers and others with hard right wing views have followed the well-worn path of blaming their political opponents of treason and using that as an excuse to eliminate them. These charges of torture and murder are the most serious charges ever made against US government employees, and are not made lightly.
In WWI the US Army created its first formal intelligence service, the Military Intelligence Division (MID). The MID was small but multiplied its force using an unofficial army of 250,000 vigilantes, called the American Protective League (APL). The vigilante army members were used to, “keep watch over suspicious activities”, and perhaps more importantly, to suppress resistance to the war. Leaders of the vigilante army were made official officers in the MID (supposedly) to control the worst of the “illegal activity” by the vigilantes.
Targeted Individuals (TI’s) are victims of organized stalking. Other terms are gang stalking, street theater, gas lighting. The KKK called it mobbing. TI’s are victims of a public smear campaign to cast them as, “undesirable elements who must be driven out of the community”. The vigilante means of driving TI’s out of town are low level attacks, some of which are not technically illegal, and are difficult for the TI to describe to others. Strangers cursing the TI in public everywhere they go, bumping and blocking tactics on city sidewalks, streets, and inside stores. Total strangers start verbal arguments and even physical fights. Forcing car wrecks by pulling in front and slamming on brakes, or simply ramming TI’s cars in parking lots. Constant break-ins, vandalism, sabotage of computers, harassment at work, and noise campaigns such as neighbors blasting music all night, every night. A symphony of systematic low level attacks that occur literally dozens of times a day, and after just a few weeks pegs the stress level of the target at an artificially high level. The person begins to lose physical energy, sleep patterns are altered, depression sets in, and work output drops. These constant tactics of causing psychological trauma might be termed, the death of 1,000 cuts.
The tactics are similar to Behavioral Science Consultation Teams (biscuit teams) that tailor psyop attacks designed by a doctor, psychologist, and interrogation specialist, to individually design a campaign targeting cultural and personality weaknesses of the detainee. Biscuit teams use many small stress factors applied one on top of the other, used over time, including isolation, extreme temperature, stress positions, constant lights on or lights off to distort the time sense, sleep and sensory deprivation, sound attacks, sexual humiliation, constant threats of violence to the detainee or their families, even odors and other techniques to slowly break down and psychologically destroy the subject without resorting to “traditional torture” such as electrocution, or pulling out finger nails, etc.
The USSR by the 1960’s was worried about world opinion and could no longer openly imprison and execute political dissidents. They began forced institutionalization of dissidents into mental hospitals and forced them to take experimental drugs to destroy them. The 1972 US Army study, Controlled Offensive Behavior USSR, was an in-depth study of the non-traditional torture techniques and tools the USSR used on dissidents. The topics of study included the use of isolation, temperature, light, sound, smell, sleep and sensory deprivation, fake firing squads, and EMW, including the use of the device known as the LIDA (EMW) within mental institutions, used to “pacify” patients. The techniques and weapons were used to break down minds in behavior modification experiments and turn political dissidents into psychiatric cases. The US has now adopted the weapons and techniques of our former Communist enemies in the current Global War on Terror, and in the secret war on political activists and whistleblowers.
It is inevitable that TI’s will be called crazy and explained away as mass hysteria. This often happened to the human guinea pigs in past. Both Cointelpro and MKULTRA used the strategy of making TI’s look crazy as a primary method for keeping the illegal operations secret. The human radiation experiments exposed thousands of citizens to harmful or lethal levels radiation. This is one man’s story out of half a million. In 1947 Mr. Elmer Allen was injected with plutonium in the left leg in a San Francisco hospital, and the next day his leg was amputated. He told his best friend and his family doctor that he thought he might have been used as a human guinea pig. His friend didn’t believe him and avoided him and his family doctor permanently classified him as a paranoid schizophrenic in his medical records. Mr. Allen’s family didn’t find out the truth until years after he died. In 1995 the US government decided to go public, it held hearings and issued a report but no one was punished. The hearings functioned as a white wash.
Cointelpro targets were routinely depicted as paranoid when they claimed that the government was systematically following them, harassing them, and sabotaging their lives. Anti-war activist Abbie Hoffman told press, family, and friends that he was being targeted, but most refused to believe him, and afterwards avoided him. Friends of Hoffman broke into FBI offices and stole documents that proved the FBI was spending half its time on Cointelpro. It was only then that some members of the press believed him.
MKULTRA survivors still live in fear in the shadows even today. If victims tell a doctor or therapist that as children they were drugged and tortured in government labs to induce MPD they will be permanently classified as paranoid schizophrenics in their medical records. This keeps the worst aspects of MKULTRA secret. Many victims report receiving threats and harassment when they attempt to give public testimony. MKULTRA was designed and run by government funded psychiatrists, men such as Ewen Cameron, former head of the American and World Psychiatric Association.
Current victims of MONARCH will be smeared as tin foil hat mass hysteria cases because many previous victims of illegal government programs have suffered the same fate. To say that it can’t happen here or that something this big cannot be kept quiet is untrue because all the previous illegal programs involving a half million victims did happen here and they were kept secret for decades. The DOD used 500,000 human guinea pigs for weapons development programs without interruption for 50 years. Cointelpro waged war against activists from the 1950’s onward. MKULTRA traumatized children from 1953 until the late 1970’s. The atrocities continued for generations completely off the public radar. The guilty parties got away with it every time, and no one went to jail. The only two men ever convicted for Cointelpro crimes (FBI agents) were pardoned by President Ford. MKULTRA is still largely an unknown since the hearings exposed only the tip of the iceberg, and the victims have been intimidated into silence. If the full truth ever came out that the CIA systematically tortured children in government labs, their reputations would never recover.
Demands for air tight proof are impossible to meet as long as perpetrators are able to use the National Security Act in court. The only way air tight proof can be obtained is to break into Fort Meade, Army intelligence headquarters, and steal government documents. Even this may not work. Activists broke into FBI offices, and stole Cointelpro documents that led to multiple congressional hearings but no one went to jail. Cointelpro went dark for a few years, and then reemerged in the 1980’s. Demand for air tight proof is unreasonable and impossible under the circumstances. We might as well demand spontaneous confession by mass murders. Rattle snakes don’t commit suicide; you have to chop off their heads.
The case presents sufficient evidence of crimes against humanity. The weapons are proven to exist, there is a prior pattern of criminal behavior, credible witnesses have testified, and persons of interest are named who have developed EMW, written about how to use the weapons, advocated using the weapons, given the weapons to law enforcement, and participated in a cover up. In view of similar programs in the past that went undiscovered and unpunished a different strategy is necessary. An independent special prosecutor is needed, a Congressional Commission, and a truth and reconciliation commission. These three bodies should all aim for the Five Reforms: Open all secret archives, Disarm all EMW, a truth and reconciliation commission, an international conference to ban EMW, and an international bill of rights that is enforceable.
It may be the case that EMW capabilities are too overwhelming for our 800 year old legal system to deal with. Military force may be the only sufficient answer to the problem at hand. If this is the case, then I recommend that the elite 704th army intelligence brigade be disarmed using all necessary force. Four goals to heal the damage done to our nation and the larger world and to make sure that these types of crimes against humanity never happen again. The Four Goals: End Secret Dirty War; Domestic Political Reform; End Nuclear and Conventional Arms Race; Scientific and Humanitarian Initiatives to End Disease and Hunger and Preserve the Planetary Ecology. The last goal is an ambitious new Marshall Plan designed to displace the role of militarism as the driving social and economic force in the world. What is at stake: Our world is facing more than the loss of a few thousand do-gooders, the future is at stake and the freedom in jeopardy is our own.
Please visit Marshall Thomas’ web site and consult his books/videos (links above) for more information. Much gratitude to Marshall Thomas for his extensive body of work, much of which he offers free on his website, and for the richly detailed post above, with its advice for healing and transformation of our aggressively militarized society.